In recent years, various types of agricultural power machinery, mainly tractors, have grown rapidly. Agricultural power machinery is a specialized production tool with high technical content and relatively complicated structure. The general operating conditions are rather harsh, and the technical level of use of operators and professional knowledge quality are quite different. At the same time, as a production tool, as the service life is extended, the mechanical components are degraded due to wear and performance, which affects the use. Therefore, agricultural power machinery should pay attention to maintenance and cleaning.
First, the maintenance of agricultural power machinery
The maintenance of agricultural power machinery should follow the principle of “anti-heavy treatment and raise weight for repair”, and implement technical maintenance procedures. Power machinery should determine the maintenance cycle according to fuel consumption, on time, by number, by item, according to technical requirements. Maintenance, to meet technical maintenance standards, to ensure that the machine is in good technical state. At present, most of the engines of agricultural power machinery are diesel engines, so the purification of diesel oil is very important. Diesel purification First, add the filter to the funnel and add a layer of silk cloth. Second, when taking oil from the oil drum, take a layer of silk cloth or typewriter wax paper and clean or replace it regularly. Use clean, standards-compliant lubricants.
The filter element of the oil filter should be cleaned regularly. The rotor type filter is coated with a suitable length of kraft paper on the inner wall of the rotor to facilitate the adsorption of dirt under the action of centrifugation. When cleaning the dirt adsorbed on the filter core, it is best to inflate it with a pump, blow it from the inside out, brush it with a brush, and never use it by hand. Use a clean grease for the butter. Do not accidentally inject other lubricants. When the engine is running, in order to ensure that the air entering the cylinder is clean, the air filter must be inspected and cleaned regularly. In the maintenance of agricultural power machinery, the inspection of each part is done well, which can ensure the safety and reliability of the whole machine.
The inspection of parts is mainly assessed by inspection, test and measurement to see if they can meet the specified technical indicators to determine their integrity and the measures to be taken.
Second, agricultural power machinery (parts) cleaning method
1. Organic solution degreasing
In order to prevent strong corrosion of the alkaline solution to precision parts such as high-pressure oil pumps, fuel injectors, etc., it is generally possible to wash with an organic solvent. Organic solution refers to gasoline, kerosene, diesel, alcohol, trichloroethylene, etc. Its main advantages are: simple method, no need for heating, suitable for cleaning precision parts and parts not suitable for alkaline solution cleaning, such as copper, aluminum, Plastic, felt parts, etc. However, organic solvents are expensive, easy to burn, and waste resources, and should not be promoted and applied.
2. Alkaline solution degreasing
For the removal of animal and vegetable oils and mineral oils on the surface of the parts, a small amount of emulsifier can be added to the alkaline solution, and the saponification of the oil can be fully depleted by the alkaline solution. The commonly used alkaline solution formula (by mass) is: 1 Used in steel parts. Caustic soda 0.75%, sodium carbonate 5.0%, sodium phosphate 1.0%, soap 0.15%, water 93.1%; 2 for aluminum alloy parts. Sodium carbonate 1.0%, potassium dichromate 0.05%, water 98.85%. When cleaning, the solution should be heated to 75 ~ 80 ° C, if the pressure spray, the oil removal effect is better. After cleaning, the alkaline solution remaining on the surface of the part is rinsed with hot water, and dried to remove oil and rust.
3. Metal cleaning agent degreasing
Since the alkali solution has a strong corrosive effect on the aluminum alloy, and the organic solution is expensive, when the aluminum alloy parts are repaired, the metal cleaning agent should be used to remove the oil. Its main advantages are non-toxic, odorless, non-flammable, non-corrosive, low volatility, safe to use, strong decontamination ability, low cleaning cost and energy saving. It has been widely used by the majority of operators and agricultural machinery maintenance plants. However, its shortcoming is that the cleaning effect is poor at normal temperature, and it is more irritating to human skin. At present, there are many brands of cleaning agents on the market, and the performance characteristics are different. Therefore, when cleaning parts, it should be selected according to the material and fouling characteristics of the parts. If there is heating condition, high-temperature cleaning agent is used, and low-temperature cleaning agent is used for manual brushing.
4. Remove carbon deposits
1 Remove several formulations of aluminum alloy parts. Formulation 1: 100g of sodium carbonate 1.85g, sodium silicate 0.85g, soap 0.8g; Formulation 2: 100g of sodium carbonate 2.0g, sodium silicate 0.8g, soap 1.0g, potassium dichromate 0.5g; 3: 100 g of water was added with 1.0 g of sodium carbonate, 1.0 g of soap, and 0.5 g of potassium dichromate.
2 Remove several recipes for steel parts. Formulation 1: 100g of caustic soda, 2.5g of sodium carbonate, 3.0g of sodium carbonate, 0.15g of sodium silicate, 0.85g of soap; formula 2: 10g of caustic soda and 0.5g of potassium dichromate in 100g of water; formula 3: 100g of water added caustic Sodium 2.5 g, sodium carbonate 3.1 g, sodium silicate 1.0 g, soap 0.85 g, potassium dichromate 0.5 g. When cleaning, first heat the solution to 80 ~ 90 ° C, then put the parts into it for 2 ~ 3h to remove, use a brush or cotton sand to remove the carbon, then wash with hot water, blow dry or dry.
5. Remove scale
Due to the deposition of mineral salts, the cooling system will form scale, which will affect the cooling system. Therefore, the scale must be removed regularly. When removing the scale with sodium silicate as the main component, 2% to 3% sodium hydroxide solution can be added to the cooling system. After the standby car runs for 1 day, it is discharged, rinsed with water, and then repeated once more. Finally, the cooling system is thoroughly cleaned with clean water. The second is to remove the scale of the cast iron cylinder block, etc., and the concentration of 8% to 10% hydrochloric acid solution and the 3% of the hydrochloric acid solution can be heated to 50 ~ 60 ° C into the water jacket, soaked for 2 ~ 3h After the discharge, it is washed with an aqueous solution containing potassium dichromate, or injected into a water jacket with a 5% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the residual acid solution. Then rinse with water several times until it is clean. This method is suitable for removing scales whose main components are calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate.